MY PHOTOGRAPHY

Saturday, November 6, 2010

NOT JUST A HUMAN BRAIN .........SOMETHING MORE THAN THAT

interesting
1) There are no pain receptors in the brain, so the brain can feel no pain.
2) The human brain is the fattest organ in the body and may consists of at least 60% fat.
3) Neurons develop at the rate of 250,000 neurons per minute during early pregnancy.
4) Humans continue to make new neurons throughout life in response to mental activity.
5) Alcohol interferes with brain processes by weakening connections between neurons.
6) Altitude makes the brain see strange visions – Many religions involve special visions that occurred at great heights. For example, Moses encountered a voice emanating from a burning bush on Mount Sinai and Muhammad was visited by an angel on Mount Hira. Similar phenomena are reported by mountain climbers, but they don’t think it’s very mystical. Many of the effects are attributable to the reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. At 8,000ft or higher, some mountaineers report perceiving unseen companions, seeing light emanating from themselves or others, seeing a second body like their own, and suddenly feeling emotions such as fear. Oxygen deprivation is likely to interfere with brain regions active in visual and face processing, and in emotional events.
7) Reading aloud and talking often to a young child promotes brain development.
8 ) Information travels at different speeds within different types of neurons. Not all neurons are the same. There are a few different types within the body and transmission along these different kinds can be as slow as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec.

9) The capacity for such emotions as joy, happiness, fear, and shyness are already developed at birth. The specific type of nurturing a child receives shapes how these emotions are developed.
10) The left side of your brain (left hemisphere) controls the right side of your body; and, the right side of your brain (right hemisphere) controls the left side of your body.
11) Children who learn two languages before the age of five alters the brain structure and adults have a much denser gray matter.
12) Information can be processed as slowly as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec (about 268 miles/hr).
13) While awake, your brain generates between 10 and 23 watts of power–or enough energy to power a light bulb.
14) The old adage of humans only using 10% of their brain is not true. Every part of the brain has a known function.
15) A study of one million students in New York showed that students who ate lunches that did not include artificial flavors, preservatives, and dyes did 14% better on IQ tests than students who ate lunches with these additives.
16) For years, scientists believed that tinnitus was due to a function within the mechanics of the ear, but newer evidence shows that it is actually a function of the brain.
17) Every time you recall a memory or have a new thought, you are creating a new connection in your brain.
18) Memories triggered by scent have a stronger emotional connection, therefore appear more intense than other memory triggers.
19) Each time we blink, our brain kicks in and keeps things illuminated so the whole world doesn’t go dark each time we blink (about 20,000 times a day).
20) Laughing at a joke is no simple task as it requires activity in five different areas of the brain.
21) The average number of thoughts that humans are believed to experience each day is 70,000.
22) There are two different schools of thought as to why we dream: the physiological school, and the psychological school. While many theories have been proposed, not single consensus has emerged as to why we dream. Some researchers suggest that dreams serve no real purpose, while other believe that dreaming is essential to mental, emotional and physical well-being. One theory for dreaming suggests dreams serve to clean up clutter from the mind.
23) The Hypothalamus part of the brain regulates body temperature much like a thermostat. The hypothalamus knows what temperature your body should be (about 98.6 Fahrenheit or 37 Celsius), and if your body is too hot, the hypothalamus tells it to sweat. If you’re too cold, the hypothalamus makes you start shivering. Shivering and sweating helps get your body’s temperature back to normal.
24) Approximately 85,000 neocortical neurons are lost each day in your brain. Fortunately, his goes unnoticed due to the built-in redundancies and the fact that even after three years this loss adds up to less than 1% of the total.
25) Differences in brain weight and size do not equal differences in mental ability. The weight of Albert Einstein’s brain was 1,230 grams that is less than an average weight of the human brain.
26) A living brain is so soft you could cut it with a table knife.
27) There are about 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the brain.
28) London taxi drivers ,famous for knowing all the London streets by heart, have a larger than normal hippocampus, especially the drivers who have been on the job longest. The study suggests that as people memorize more and more information, this part of their brain continues to grow.
29) The brain can live for 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen, and then it begins to die. No oxygen for 5 to 10 minutes will result in permanent brain damage.
30) Our brain often fools us. It often perceives things differently from the reality. Look at those pictures. Square A and B are actually the same shade of gray.

     

    PROCESSING SPEED

    The human brain - We can only estimate the processing power of the average human brain as there is no way to measure it quantitatively as of yet. If the theory of taking nerve volume to be proportional to processing power is true we then, may have a correct estimate of the human brain's processing power.

It is fortunate that we understand the neural assemblies is the retina of the vertebrate eye quite well (structurally and functionally) because it helps to give us a idea of the human brain's capability.
The retina is a nerve tissue in the back of the eyeball which detects lights and sends images to the brain. A human retina has a size of about a centimeter square is half a millimeter thick and is made up of 100 million neurons. Scientists say that the retina sends to the brain, particular patches of images indicating light intensity differences which are transported via the optic nerve, a million-fiber cable which reaches deep into the brain.
Overall, the retina seems to process about ten one-million-point images per second.
Because the 1,500 cubic centimeter human brain is about 100,000 times as large as the retina, by simple calculation, we can estimate the processing power of a average brain to be about 100 million MIPS (Million computer Instructions Per Second ). In case you're wondering how much speed that is, let us give you an idea.
1999's fastest PC processor chip on the market was a 700 MHz pentium that did 4200 MIPS. By simple calculation, we can see that we would need at least 24,000 of these processors in a system to match up to the total speed of the brain !! (Which means the brain is like a 168,0000 MHz Pentium computer). But even so, other factors like memory and the complexity of the system needed to handle so many processors will not be a simple task. Because of these factors, the figures we so childishly calculated will most probably be a very serious underestimate.

The computer - The most powerful experimental super computers in 1998, composed of thousands or tens of thousands of the fastest microprocessors and costing tens of millions of dollars, can do a few million MIPS. These systems were used mainly to stimulate physical events for high-value scientific calculations.

     

     

      Fun Facts About The Human Brain

    • Results from cognitive tests show 30% of 80-year-olds perform as well as young adults.
    • Your brain is about 2% of your total body weight but uses 20% of your body's energy.
    • The energy used by the brain is enough to light a 25 watt bulb.
    • More electrical impulses are generated in one day by a single human brain than by all the telephones in the world.
    • How much does human brain think? 70,000 is the number of thoughts that it is estimated the human brain produces on an average day.
    • After age 30, the brain shrinks a quarter of a percent (0.25%) in mass each year.
    • Albert Einsteins brain weighed 1,230 grams (2.71 lbs), significantly less then the human average of 1,300g to 1,400g (3 lbs).
    • Each year Americans consume 50 billion aspirin tablets or 15.5 million tons.
    • 89.06 is the percentage of people who report normally writing with their right hand, 10.6% with their left and 0.34% with either hand.

    Composition

  • The composition of the brain = 77-78% water, 10-12% lipids, 8% protein, 1% carbs, 2% soluble organics, 1% inorganic salt.
  • The breakdown of intracranial contents by volume (1,700 ml, 100%): brain = 1,400 ml (80%); blood = 150 ml (10%); cerebrospinal fluid = 150 ml (10%).
  • The cerebellum contains half of all the neurons in the brain but comprises only 10% of the brain.
  • The cerebral cortex is about 85% of the brain.
  • Percentage of total cerebral cortex volume = frontal lobe 41%, temporal lobe 22%, parietal lobe 19%, occipital lobe 18%.
  • There are about 100 billion neurons in the human brain, the same number of stars in our galaxy.
  • The left hemisphere of the brain has 186 million more neurons than the right hemisphere.
  • 750-1000ml of blood flow through the brain every minute or about 3 full soda cans.
  • In that minute the brain will consume 46cm3 (1/5 cups) of oxygen from that blood.
  • Of that oxygen consumed, 6% will be used by the brain's white matter and 94% by the grey matter.
  • Times

  • The brain can stay alive for 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen. After that cells begin die.
  • The slowest speed at which information travels between neurons is 416 km/h or 260 mph, thats as "slow" as todays supercar's top speed (the Bugatti EB 16.4 Veyron clocked at 253 mph).
  • 10 seconds is the amount of time until unconsciousness after the loss of blood supply to the brain.
  • Time until reflex loss after loss of blood supply to the brain, 40-110 seconds.
  • During early pregnancy the rate of neuron growth is 250,000 neurons a minute.

1 comment: